Manfred Mann Members
Past and Present
These copyrighted excerpts are from Greg Russo's book Mannerisms: The Five Phases of Manfred Mann. To find out more about these musicians, buy the book.
Tom McGuinness' description of Mike Hugg as a chameleon couldn't have been a better one for this vastly underrated co-founder of Manfred Mann. Hugg's tremendous contributions to all aspects of the Manfred Mann repertoire have proven to be the most durable of all the Manfred Mann members. After finally parting professionally from Manfred in 1972, Mike went through many different performing guises before settling into his behind-the-scenes audio/visual projects.
Hugg has had many career highlights, but none as important as the revered minor classic, "Blue Suede Shoes Again." Mike's studio group The Highly Likely scored a lone UK Top 40 hit with "The Likely Lads"' theme "Whatever Happened To You?". Hugg's last album appearance on drums was on the 1973 Apple Records album Brother by Lon & Derrek Van Eaton. Hugg has since been making his noise from behind the keyboards, and Mike's talents are also heavily featured in the touring Manfreds.
Mike Vickers' contributions to the British music industry have been overlooked for many years. This is mainly because his name has usually appeared in small print on numerous albums and singles over the years. Groups such as The Scaffold, The Zombies and Gentle Giant have received Mike Vickers arrangement and production treatments. These recordings have turned out to be the most enduring of their careers.
After leaving Manfred Mann in 1965, Vickers had aspirations to conduct and arrange, and his Columbia output clearly reflected this goal. His arrangements graced dozens of British sessions during the 1960s. On June 25, 1967, Mike and George Martin conducted the 13-piece orchestra on The Beatles' "All You Need Is Love." Furthering his contact with The Beatles, Vickers was hired as a Moog programmer for £25 for their Abbey Road LP. Vickers even assisted with the production of Manfred Mann's Up The Junction soundtrack. A little known fact about Vickers is that he was a British synthesizer pioneer two years before Manfred bought his Moog! Vickers' rented synthesizer enabled him to prepare for the British progressive movement in the early 1970s.
Vickers even had a taste of British Top 40 success with "Captain Kremmen (Retribution)" by teaming up with radio personality Kenny Everett. Currently, Mike has been enjoying himself in The Manfreds.
Calling a Paul Jones a multiple threat would be an understatement. His output of records and compositions is impressive. However, his appearances on TV, radio, video and the stage is nothing short of monumental! After his '60s pop career wound down, Jones went into acting while occasionally dabbling in recording. Jones' acting success was extremely surprising, as his only pre- Manfreds acting experience was playing "Duncan" in his school's production of Macbeth.
After giving Manfred Mann his notice in 1965, Paul Jones' last live gig with the group took place on July 31, 1966. The previous March, Jones brought his harmonica into the studio that same month with Eric Clapton, Steve Winwood (vocals), Jack Bruce (bass), Ben Palmer (piano) and Pete York (drums). This group was dubbed Eric Clapton & The Powerhouse. This star-studded session ("I Want To Know," "Crossroads" and "Steppin' Out") appeared on the Elektra album What's Shakin'.
Jones' solo career began with a bang with the hits "High Time" and "I've Been A Bad Bad Boy." However, no large successes followed. (Jones re-recorded "High Time" and "I've Been A Bad Bad Boy" later for the K-Tel owned Key Seven company.) The film Privilege, in which Jones starred, was not universally accepted but its accompanying EP did well. The follow-up single "Thinkin' Ain't For Me" succeeded to a lesser extent. Still, Jones found it difficult to compete in the rapidly changing British music scene. In October 1967, Jones was forced to switch over to EMI's Columbia label because EMI was reserving HMV for classical releases, but this label change did not change his fortunes. The only exception was the #7 Australian success of his biggest single there - "Sons & Lovers." A highlight among Jones' non-hits was the Gibb brothers' song "And The Sun Will Shine," and this single featured help from such notables as Paul McCartney, McCartney, Jeff Beck and others. Paul Jones' solo material after 1969 became extremely erratic, reflecting rapid changes in musical styles. At this point, Jones switched over to mainly non-musical activities. On February 25, 1969, Jones made his London stage debut in two Open Space Theatre plays: Fun War and Muzeeka.
Of his acting pursuits, Paul's stage appearances have been his most plentiful and consistently successful. The Andrew Lloyd Webber musical Evita was an exception, combining Jones and d'Abo's voices for the first time on record. This project commemorated the short but eventful life of Argentine leader Evita Peron, and was a tremendous success.
In December 1978, Paul Jones' surprise appearance at a Peter Gabriel/Tom Robinson benefit at London's Hammersmith Odeon won over the crowds. As Tom McGuinness has noted, "He (Jones) got an amazing response from the audience . . . finding that he was valid and welcome gave him a tremendous boost!" McGuinness and Jones then spoke on the telephone about forming a blues-based band, and that became The Blues Band. Their most commercially successful records were their first two albums and only EP. The biggest impact they had was on the audiences that were treated to the finest, most energetic blues available anywhere. After the late 1982 breakup of The Blues Band, Paul Jones resumed acting full-time. In 1989, The Blues Band's members all got the itch to play again. They have been going ever since. Like Tom McGuinness, Jones also moonlights with The Manfreds and enjoys it immensely. Paul is also a major presence on British radio in a variety of programs. He was recently honored by the program This Is Your Life - a major accomplishment!
What would Manfred Mann be without Tom McGuinness' levity to loosen things up? Any time Tom was called upon to provide liner notes for a record, Tom's cutting comments caused all targets to run for cover. Whether on stage, on TV or in the studio, this sense of humor was always prevalent. In essence, McGuinness was the glue that held the Manfreds together.
McGuinness' path to the Manfreds was a very frustrating one. Tom and writing partner Mark Newell had some success on UK TV's That Was The Week That Was and the lesser known Private Eye, but Tom really wanted to attack the music business. His first group never got beyond the rehearsal stage but lasted from the summer to the fall of 1962. McGuinness quickly moved through many underachieving R&B bands, namely The Talismen, The Ravens and The London Thunderbirds. During the life of his original rehearsal group, McGuinness had run into Paul Jones and both kept contact. Tom's girlfriend at the time was attending the Kingston College Of Art, and she introduced him to fellow student Eric Clapton. From this meeting in March 1963, Tom started the band The Roosters with Clapton on guitar and pianist Ben Palmer. The Roosters lasted until October 1963, when McGuinness and Clapton made the incorrect decision of joining Merseybeat group Casey Jones And The Engineers for a disastrous tour that month. Clapton was quickly off to The Yardbirds, and McGuinness was moving furniture in Bentalls.
This is where McGuinness pulled off his first big joke. McGuinness knew of bassist Dave Richmond's problems with Manfred Mann, and spoke with Paul Jones about it. McGuinness conned Paul Jones into thinking that he switched over to bass and that he was the man for the job. McGuinness also convinced Manfred Mann and Mike Hugg of his skills, and amazingly, he was never asked to play during his "audition." In fact, the first time he played bass was on stage with Manfred Mann, since there was no time for rehearsals. By the time his bandmembers discovered that he deceived them all, they all had a good laugh since he worked in so well!
Tom played bass until Mike Vickers left in 1965, then turned over his bass to Jack Bruce and later Klaus Voorman. At this point, Tom was able to switch back to guitar, his natural instrument. After Manfred Mann ran out in 1969, Tom joined friend Hughie Flint to form McGuinness Flint. Their band scored two major hits in England, "When I'm Dead And Gone" and "Malt And Barley Blues." Changing their musical styles after leaving Capitol Records signaled the end of their success. This was compounded by a BBC ban of the single "Let The People Go" due to its lyrical jabs at Britain's internment policy in Ireland.
Songwriters and McGuinness Flint members Benny Gallagher and Graham Lyle were mainly responsible for the band's success, and their frustration caused them to quit the group. They soon became a successful duo. McGuinness and Flint then joined up with Dennis Coulson and Dixie Dean to record the 1972 album Lo And Behold. Lo And Behold was a collection of then-unreleased Bob Dylan songs. The album was produced by Manfred Mann, and also included session work by Mike Hugg. McGuinness also did a Christmas single with Rob Townsend and Lou Stonebridge that came out using three different spellings of the artist's name (obviously another joke!).
Spurred on by Paul Jones' surprise performance in 1978, Tom got a call from Jones to form The Blues Band with Dave Kelly, Hughie Flint and Gary Fletcher. The first Blues Band concert was at The Bridge House in Canning Town in April 1979. Their first EP and first two albums were extremely successful, and all noticed their honest and spirited treatment of the blues. This ride lasted until December 18, 1982, when the band wanted some time to do other projects. McGuinness went into TV production/direction, such as The South Bank Show's Hendrix biography. He also wrote the serious (for once) liner notes for MMEB's LP Somewhere In Afrika. Tom also humorously documented his career in his book So You Want To Be A Rock & Roll Star.
While still with The Blues Band, Tom teamed up with Lou Stonebridge to do a single on Chrysalis and an album for RCA. After the dissolution of The Blues Band, McGuinness joined The Dave Kelly Band in time for their re-recording of the McGuinness Flint hit "When I'm Dead And Gone." Tom was replaced in this band by none other than Mick Rogers. Other McGuinness projects include the Lyle McGuinness Band and a single with Terry Oldfield. The Blues Band reunited in 1989 for more action, and Tom has doubled his pleasure by touring with The Manfreds.
Bassist Klaus Voorman's friendship with the pre-fame Beatles prepared him for later success with Manfred Mann and his other Beatles-related activities. Klaus was first in the group The Blue Sounds before he formed Paddy, Klaus & Gibson. This Liverpool-based trio followed The Beatles into Hamburg, Germany to gain the necessary experience to succeed in England. Besides Klaus, this group consisted of Paddy Chambers (formerly in The Big 3; vocals and guitar) and Gibson Kemp, former drummer for Rory Storm and Kingsize Taylor. After three unsuccessful Pye singles, Klaus accepted an offer to join Manfred Mann, which had just signed with Fontana.
After his tenure with Manfred Mann, Voorman renewed his ties with John Lennon by joining The Plastic Ono Band. His appearances included the Lennon albums Live Peace In Toronto, Plastic Ono Band, Imagine, Some Time In New York City, Walls And Bridges and Rock 'N' Roll, in addition to many other sessions. In 1982, Klaus produced the German/UK hit "Da Da" by German group Trio. Voorman has run a hotel in northern Germany and occasionally dabbles with music groups there.
Replacing Paul Jones as vocalist of the Manfreds was obviously a tall order to fill. While not quite matching the stage persona of Jones, d'Abo kept the Fontana version of Manfred Mann fresh until the end of the decade. Fulfilling his musical dreams at Harrow School, keyboardist/vocalist Mike d'Abo formed A Band Of Angels. This group also featured Christian (John) Gaydon (guitar/vocals), guitarist John Baker, Dave Wilkinson (bass) and drummer James Rugge-Price. Besides an appearance on the various artists album Just For You. A Band Of Angels released two singles each on Piccadilly and United Artists. The Manfreds spotted d'Abo in 1966 and he quickly became the band's new vocalist.
Before Manfred Mann officially announced their disbanding, d'Abo released a quickly recalled single on Immediate. Since Fontana sued by claiming that d'Abo had exclusive recording rights with their label, the record had no chance. Despite this, d'Abo went on to perform in the studio production of Jesus Christ Superstar. This production was an immediate smash in the US in 1970, but it inexplicably took two years to catch on in the UK.
Mike d'Abo's hit songwriting credits have been plentiful. These include "Build Me Up Buttercup" (The Foundations' hit) and "Handbags And Gladrags" (Rod Stewart and Chris Farlowe). Two of Mike's other projects were a collaboration with former Dave Clark Five vocalist Mike Smith in the mid-'70s, and the Evita studio album with Paul Jones. Also along the way, d'Abo has scored for film (There's A Girl In My Soup), the stage, and for commercials ("Finger Of Fudge" for Cadbury Fingers, Ty-Phoo Tea and Rowntree's Jelly Tots). d'Abo's first radio work was with the independent station Severn Sound, and he later moved to Radio Gloucester and then to the 2- hour Late Night West show on Radio Bristol. Since April 1991, Mike's program on this BBC station was officially broadcast to other BBC stations: Radio Gloucestershire, Somerset Sound and Wiltshire Sound. Mike took a hiatus from his program to recharge his batteries, and he returned with a program honoring the nostalgia of the 1960s.
Mike has performed with His Mighty Quintet and The Manfreds in later years, and his productive interactions with Paul Jones in the latter group reinforce just how strong Mike d'Abo remains to this day.
Welchman Chris Slade's rock steady beats and occasional blasts of power during his time with MMEB are two of the reasons why most fans hold the original lineup in such high esteem. Chris started playing drums on a semi-professional basis with The Bright Boys. This group included his father Danny Slade, a dancer, and Thomas Woodward, a new singer who used the name Tommy Scott. Scott later became known as Tom Jones. Slade's association with Tom Jones lasted for eight years, as Slade was incorporated in Tom's backing groups. These groups were The Senators, The Playboys and finally The Squires, Jones' backing band during his breakthrough 1965 tour. Chris is also on the artificial live EP Tom Jones On Stage and live and Top Of The Pops TV appearances of Tom Jones' hit single "It's Not Unusual." Tom Jones' success was universal, and Slade made three 6-month US tours with Jones. On the same tours, Slade even backed the Ted Heath and Count Basie bands!
Chris worked as a shoe salesman, played on other sessions and stayed six months with The Squires after Tom Jones got another backing band. The most notable session was with Toomorrow, the disastrous studio group that included Olivia Newton-John. Thankfully, Slade was only with the band a few months. He was not heavily involved with the album or the film this group made. Soon after, Manfred Mann got Chris Slade to help him on the aborted third Manfred Mann Chapter Three album. Four months after Manfred Mann Chapter Three broke up, Manfred called up Slade to form another band with Mick Rogers. Slade then brought in bassist Colin Pattenden, and the lineup of MMEB was complete.
Slade stayed with the Earth Band until late 1978, when he formed the short-lived Terra Nova ("new earth") with Colin Pattenden. This group recorded an album.
Uriah Heep called Chris Slade in November 1979, and he stayed with them until September 1980. Unfortunately, this was the weakest lineup of the band, since Slade replaced longtime drummer Lee Kerslake and Ken Hensley had just left. Lead singer John Sloman did not work out, and the band's recordings and live shows bore this out. Uriah Heep was then out of business until 1982.
After a session with Pink Floyd guitarist Dave Gilmour, Gilmour got Slade into the swing of things again. Through Gilmour, Slade was brought into contact with the guitarist on the nearly 20 year- old "It's Not Unusual" session - Jimmy Page. Their resulting group was The Firm, and it also included former Free and Bad Company vocalist Paul Rodgers and bass player Tony Franklin. After an initial splash with their first album, The Firm did not meet the expectations of music fans and of themselves. They broke up soon after their second album.
Slade was out of action until AC/DC gave him a call to play on their 1990 album, The Razors Edge (please note the intentional misspelling). This album and the resulting tour were massive, and Slade has been involved with AC/DC ever since. This album spun off many strong songs, including "Thunderstruck" and "Moneytalks." AC/DC's one-dimensional rock approach continues to work, and Slade got his wish to be a part of a well-functioning group. On this album's tour, this success continued with the album Live, available in single and double CD formats. The last recording that AC/DC produced with Slade was "Big Gun", recorded for the Arnold Schwarzenegger movie Last Action Hero. Chris occasionally appears on sessions from time to time.
For nearly every MMEB fan, Mick Rogers was responsible for blazing incredible musical fires over the band's '70s audiences. Mick's departure in 1975 marked the end of an era for the Earth Band, but Mick was never far away from the Earth Band's actions. Upon his return to the Earth Band in June 1983, a new fire was set.
Mick's interest in music was inspired by his father Ted (a drummer) and uncle Ernie Norman (string bass and guitar). With his family's talent, Mick's excitement with '50s rock and roll formed his musical dreams. Mick's first jobs after leaving school included a 3-month stint as an apprentice engineer and a period as a shoe salesman. Mick started playing double bass and switched to guitar between 1964 and 1965. The local holiday spot Warner's Holiday Camp required a band, so Mick put one together for the summer. With this firmly behind him, Mick went to Expo '67 in Montreal and then to Australia on one of the dreaded package tours, playing with Adam Faith for a one-year period and then Gene Pitney. Also on this tour was the enormously successful Australian singer Normie Rowe and his band The Playboys. Mick's group backed all the artists except Rowe, and this group also played a 20-minute set of its own. Normie Rowe's guitar player was leaving, so Rowe asked Mick to join The Playboys. When Mick and fellow Playboys guitarist Brian Peacock started their work with Rowe in September 1966, the band played in Montreal and throughout Australia for a few months. Normie Rowe & The Playboys made some recordings before the effects of the Vietnam War broke up the band in December 1966. Peacock had been the author of Normie Rowe's later hit "Penelope" (written before Mick Rogers joined the band), and this song was later recorded by Procession.
Before this, Brian Peacock and drummer Craig Collinge were founding members of The Librettos, a successful New Zealand group that did not survive in Australia. In late 1966, Collinge headed a Cream-influenced power trio in Brisbane called The Knack. Meanwhile, The Playboys without Normie Rowe issued their own single on the Australian Sunshine label, "Sad." Soon, Collinge and Trevor Griffin (keyboards and vocals) were part of this new Playboys group, now called Procession. Griffin was previously with the London group The Question Marks. All of Procession's members wanted to tap into progressive territory, which included snatches of jazz within a pop format.
Procession set out to dominate the Australian music scene. They appeared every week on the new four-hour, Saturday morning Australian TV show Uptight. This program was conveniently produced by their manager David Joseph, who also managed to work the band into a special segment of the show on a weekly basis.
Procession's goal was to present the band in some premiere setting each time out. For example, their first single "Anthem" (which was shown as by The Procession) was recorded without any instrumental accompaniment. Also, another unique occurrence was their first TV appearance, backed by a 40- member choir. Procession then received three-week assignments at Sebastian's and Bertie's commencing on December 17, 1967. These gigs built upon their "Uptight" fan base into early 1968.
The third premiere by the band was the recording of their first album. Live At Sebastian's (with "Penelope") was recorded on April 3, 1968, becoming the first live debut album by an Australian act. Procession was also the first Australian group to use an 8-track Scully recorder. This equipment was used to lay down their second single, "Listen."
The unfortunate part of all this effort by the band is that their records did not sell. The Australian public was very confused and overwhelmed by the sheer diversity and musical structure of Procession's records. As a result, a complete lack of response occurred. The band decided that Australia wasn't advanced enough to appreciate their work, so they ventured to a place where they thought people had more open minds - London. This decision was helped by their manager, who obtained a large advance for the group from UK Mercury Records to record an album. The band had the good fortune to work with Mike Hugg in London for most of their first (and only) studio album. Hugg had just finished recording "Fox On The Run" with Manfred Mann, and was ready for this project. This was when Manfred heard Mick sing for the first time.
Procession's self-titled album (with different tracks on the Australian and UK editions) was by far the most progressive album by an Australian band. It reflected their jazz tendencies with a firm pop basis. Despite heavy promotion, the British radio and public now ignored their records. Fed up with this ignorance, Peacock formed the group The Party Machine in early 1969. Ross Wilson became Peacock's replacement on guitar, but this lineup folded before any other recordings were made. Mick Rogers went back to Australia and formed a blues-based trio, Bulldog, with Peter Miles and Bob Daly. Bulldog released the single "A Man Of Constant Sorrow," and then Mick departed the group, which then evolved into Drummond. Drummond was a one-hit band in Australia, producing the #1 record "Daddy Cool." After this, Mick immersed himself in sessions.
Mick's opinion of the Procession album is not favorable: "The album was a pretty strange mixture of Jack Bruce, and free music bordering on jazz. After signing a UK contract, Mercury tried to turn us into a pop band."
Meanwhile, Collinge joined Manfred Mann Chapter Three for two albums before leaving to join an imitation Fleetwood Mac group, and the bands Shoot and Third World War. Collinge was replaced by Chris Slade, who started work on the abortive third Manfred Mann Chapter Three album.
(In the summer of 1978, a very frustrating thing occurred to the former members of Procession. The Australian vocal group The New Seekers hit #21 in the UK with "Anthem [One Day In Every Week]." This was the same song that Procession released without success as "Anthem" on a single, their Australian studio LP and live album, and as "One Day In Every Week" on their UK album. If anything, it proved the lasting impression the song truly had.)
Manager David Joseph helped Mick Rogers again in late 1970. While attending a record reception, Joseph discovered that Manfred Mann was forming a new band. Joseph called Mick and asked him to come from Australia to London to see if the project would work. Mick accepted the offer immediately.
After his long stint with the Earth Band, Mick returned to Australia and formed Eclipse. This band recorded a remake of "Get Your Rocks Off." Lillian Bron from Bronze Records called Mick up and asked if he would join Uriah Heep. Heep's singer (David Byron) and bass player (John Wetton) were leaving, so it would have been a great opportunity for Mick. After writing some songs with Uriah Heep member Ken Hensley for a couple of weeks, Mick decided that Heep wasn't for him. Mick did some MMEB sessions and then formed Aviator with Clive Bunker, Jack Lancaster and John G. Perry. Aviator then went on tour supporting guitarist Steve Hillage. Mick's take on Aviator was more positive: "I loved that band. It just ran out of money. Originally, Jack Lancaster was on horns - Jack was in a different area than we were. We wanted more of a rock band. I loved that band (Aviator) live - you talk about not capturing it on record . . . on a couple of things, that band sounded enormous. However, 'Turbulence,' our second album, came close. To cut a long story short, I met up with Manfred - we never lost contact."
During the '70s, Mick played on Mike Hugg's LPs Somewhere and Stress And Strain. Mick also played with Dave Greenslade, Simon Phillips and bassist Tony Reeves. A short stint with Colosseum II also appeared on Mick's resume. Between his Earth Band stints, Mick played guitar on Jack Lancaster's 1981 LP Skinningrove Bay and he replaced Tom McGuinness in The Dave Kelly Band in 1982. He has also played off and on with Joan Armatrading. On weekends, Mick plays at a small Brentford pub with Willy Finlayson and Matt Irving on keyboards and vocals.
Mick's opinion of the albums on which he was not a member is equally favorable: The Roaring Silence and Watch were probably the closest that Manfred recorded to live albums. They bridged the gap more than any other album I think, and Solar Fire (a Mick Rogers era MMEB album) still sells. I have done something on most MMEB albums, and the Earth Band (in 1986) were going through another change."
A lot of things for the Earth Band changed between 1975 and 1983. Mick likes the way it works now: "What changed was that I was no longer the singer. I was working alongside Chris Thompson, which was great. Manfred has employed the two singer system, so although Noel McCalla is now the main singer, I do my things . . . two totally different voices, but when we sing together, it all comes together.
"I think because Manfred and I are very close in interests, and because I know him from the early days as well, when he says he needs something, I can lock into it. Even now, we help one another, so that association carries on."
Were it not the case that Chris Thompson's vocal talents received exposure via Manfred Mann's Earth Band, would he be the most in-demand vocalist on the British scene? Probably not. Thompson has appeared just about everywhere in projects that reflect his numerous talents and interests.
Born in England, vocalist/guitarist Chris Thompson grew up in New Zealand and started singing in high school folk bands. Another interest of Chris' was teaching, and he was qualified to deal with learning-disabled primary school children. He soon became a member of Hillberry Walker, a New Zealand based backup band for touring professionals such as Chuck Berry and Little Richard.
Thompson returned to England in 1974 to do TV commercials and sessions, including work with Ike and Tina Turner. Thompson soon joined up with Brian Keith (from the group Plastic Penny) and became the duo Central Park Reunion, issuing two singles. With the experience that he gained from these works, Thompson had learned from his past mistakes. Six years before he replaced Mick Rogers in the Earth Band in 1975, Chris auditioned for Argent. Thompson did not get the job despite being the best vocalist because at the time he was considered "overweight and bald" by the band. Chris found out about Manfred's audition and sang "Joybringer" and "Spirits In The Night." This time, he succeeded at the audition!
While still with MMEB, Thompson formed Filthy McNasty with the vastly underrated Stevie Lange on vocals and percussion, Billy Kristian (bass/vocals), Mike Walker (keyboards) and drummer Clive Edwards. Their residency at The Bridge House in London brought fans to their knees with their overwhelming and roughly sensual sound. The only fruit from this band was documented on their three live tracks on the 1978 double album A Week At The Bridge E16.
At this point, Chris' lead vocal session work started to flourish. (These sessions, as well as Chris' compositions, have been listed in the following discography.) Thompson sang "Thunderchild" on Jeff Wayne's tremendously successful The War Of The Worlds 2LP concept album, released in the summer of 1978. This UK platinum album also did well in the in the States, reaching the Top 100. "Thunderchild" appeared as a single in the 12" format only, a rarity at the time.
Due to the success of Filthy McNasty and The War Of The Worlds, Chris Thompson had given Manfred his notice. Chris Thompson was starting to write songs that he felt would be more suitable outside the Earth Band. After the Earth Band's 1979 European tour for "Angel Station," Chris formed the band Night. Night was formed from the Thompson/Lange/Kristian nucleus of Filthy McNasty plus Nicky Hopkins on piano, guitar man Robbie McIntosh and Rick Marrotta on drums.
Night's eponymous debut LP featured four Thompson written or co-written songs, and the entire album was a sensual pleasure due to Stevie Lange and her steamy interactions with Chris. The US public noticed this, and rewarded Night with the Top 20 hits "Hot Summer Nights" and "If You Remember Me." The former was written by Walter Egan, who had released his modestly-selling version the year before.
A 3-week tour of the US with The Doobie Brothers from September 21 to October 14, 1979 gave the band greater exposure. For the tour, Peter Baron replaced Rick Marrotta on drums, and Chris struck up a productive friendship with Doobie Brothers member Patrick Simmons.
The band's next (and final) album was Long Distance in 1980. Keyboardist Bobby Wright replaced Nicky Hopkins, while Bobby Giudotti became the new drummer. More of Thompson's songs were used on this album, but the album and the singles from it (including the excellent "Love On The Airwaves") did not catch on. A tour followed, and a half-hour promo was done for Britain's Radio One. On this promo, the band ripped through their songs and a version of "Blinded By The Light."
The campy 1981 film The Monster Club offered Night an opportunity to expose themselves in the video medium, and Stevie Lange very nearly did that! The footage of the song they performed, "The Stripper," proved to be the most classic sequence of the film. The band then became The Island before finally grinding to a halt in 1983 when Robbie McIntosh accepted an offer to join The Pretenders.
In 1983, Chris released his first solo album, the German release Out Of The Night. The album's title was a play on his past group, and was recorded at Manfred's Workhouse studio. In addition to Chris, Robbie McIntosh (guitar), Malcolm Foster (bass), Mic Clews (drums) and Paul Wickens (aka Wix; keyboards) formed the group. This band became The Islands. Chris and McIntosh wrote nearly the entire album, which did not sell.
Chris went on Radio One and on the road in 1984 to promote his single "Bye Bye Love" on Simple Records. Some of the tour material ended up on his 1985 European LP release Radio Voices. This album featured a re-recording of Night's "Dr. Rock" and "A Shift In The Wind," a collaboration of Thompson and Queen guitarist Brian May.
The High Cost Of Living became Chris Thompson's next album in 1986. This time he was on Atlantic, and it became his only US and UK album release. Again, Chris joined Stevie Lange, Robbie McIntosh and others to create a uniformly strong album. The Motors' hit "Love And Loneliness" and "It's Not Over" did not make any singles impact.
In 1987 John Farnham issued "You're The Voice," a song co-written by Chris, Andy Qunta, Keith Reid and Maggie Ryder. "You're The Voice" was a hit every place except North America. Chris and Procol Harum lyricist Keith Reid contributed in 1988 to Tabaluga And The Magic Jadestone, a child's tale of a dragon narrated by Hayley Mills with Chris Thompson on vocals. "One Step At A Time" and "To Hell With Love" were also issued as singles, and the album was also available in a German-narrated version.
With little notice, Thompson received a call from Harold Faltermeyer (known for his Beverly Hills Cop hit "Axel F") to write lyrics for a tennis-oriented song. Chris delivered, and the heavily synthesized single "The Challenge (Face It)" went into release just in time for Wimbledon. "The Challenge (Face It)" hit the top of the German singles charts, and the Wimbledon success of German tennis stars Steffi Graf and Boris Becker figured in the single's healthy sales.
During the closing ceremony of the 1990 Commonwealth Games, Chris led a band including Billy Kristian on bass. The song recorded for the games, "This Is The Moment," received a New Zealand release. Thompson's next album Beat Of Love was released in Germany. Another synthesizer- based collaboration with Harold Faltermeyer, "Beat Of Love," enabled Thompson to tour Germany with former MMEB drummer John Lingwood, keyboard player Don Airey, Brett Sawyer on guitar and Kevin Reynolds (sax). On this tour, the band played the MMEB favorites "For You" and "Blinded By The Light," as well as The Blue Nile's "Stay."
Chris' most recent recorded appearance was on Alan Parsons' neglected Try Anything Once album in 1993. After years of studio work, Alan Parsons finally explored the live arena in 1994 with Thompson by his side.
Chris occasionally performs and records with The SAS Band and has done some recordings with former City Boy guitarist Mike Slamer.
Still, Thompson sings on. He also has done TV ads for Corn Flakes and Rank Xerox (singing The Eagles' hit "Take It To The Limit"). At this moment, he is in a studio somewhere singing his heart out.
Steve Waller could have been described as the "big bear" of the Earth Band. Waller dutifully played his guitar and sang his growly vocals during the band's post-1978 rebuilding. Though not as proficient as his fiery predecessor Dave Flett, Waller made the best of his abilities based on his strong grounding in jazz and blues. Waller was a self-taught musician with B.B. King as his idol. His debut at 12 on the pub circuit was with The Little Stevie Smith Band. Steve left school to work solo in folk clubs, then moved back to pubs with the bands Asland, The Sunshine Jazz Trio, and Gerry McAvoy Jam. The latter was captured live on the album Live At The Bridge E16 by album producer/MMEB lead vocalist Chris Thompson. The year before, Steve played with the venerable British band Gonzalez. This band scored a UK and US hit with a 1978 remix of "Haven't Stopped Dancing Yet." Waller played on many sessions, including early dates for the Trojan label. Steve has also played with The Bonzo Dog Doo Dah Band and Kevin Coyne. While playing with the Earth Band, Steve also made a single with No Man's Band. He also played the London pub circuit. Sadly, Waller died on February 6, 2000 as the result of years of alcohol abuse.
NOEL McCALLA (see photo below)
For those who have seen MMEB's recent live shows, Noel McCalla's powerful vocals have breathed new life into the songs that have been solely associated with Chris Thompson. Among these are "Blinded By The Light," "Martha's Madman" and "Davy's On The Road Again." Despite this exposure, McCalla is practically unknown.
Noel started singing on a professional basis in the Midlands in 1974. He formed the band Moon after moving to London. Two of the members of Moon were Loz Netto and Luigi (Lou) Salvoni, both later of the band Sniff 'N' The Tears. Two Moon albums for Epic Records did not sell very well, and Noel went solo with an Epic album produced by Trevor Rabin. Trevor, as usual, was involved in nearly all aspects of its production, including playing most of the instruments. Chris Thompson and Stevie Lange also contributed their usual strong backing vocals, but this album was ignored. McCalla did a single for Direction Records, then immersed himself in sessions. He immediately got a backing vocalist slot with his friends in Sniff 'N The Tears on their debut LP Fickle Heart. This album included the US Top 20 hit "Driver's Seat." The success of "Fickle Heart" took Noel on a tour of the US and Europe with the band.
Another successful project for Noel was the lead vocalist slot on Genesis guitarist Mike Rutherford's solo album Smallcreep's Day. Noel has also contributed to projects with Mezzoforte, Morrissey Mullen, Paul Weller, Bomb The Bass, Curiosity, Betty Boo, and jingles (such as Boneo). In 1986, Noel also recorded a single with Viola Wills. In between these jobs, Noel finally formed his own band in early 1987 and had it going for about two years. Noel tells what happened next: "Manfred heard of me through a friend and came to see me at the jazz venue The Bass Clef, Hoxton Square. He said that he had some tracks to try out, but it was not immediately in Manfred's mind for me to join MMEB. I was just a working musician working at my craft for a long time without pretensions or aspirations. I molded in very well and so 'Plains Music' was the first introduction. Manfred then told me that he had some gigs to do and asked me if I could sing 'Blinded By The Light' and 'Mighty Quinn.' I wasn't sure but I tried, even though they weren't my type of songs. 'Plains Music,' however, made me think that this experience wasn't going to be just rock - it was more organic, and since then, it has become a lot more than that."
Noel's band was originally called Noel McCalla's Contact and is now simply called McCalla. The band is still going strong and works around Manfred's schedule. Noel McCalla's Contact released a self-produced cassette, with backing tracks recorded at Manfred's Workhouse and overdubs at the band's 16-track studio. Noel re-recorded many of the cassette's tracks for the release of the CD Push & Pull. Noel describes what both the album and the band are all about: "The album Push & Pull is hard to describe - blues, soul, jazz with good lyrics, nice rhythms. The guitarist is bluesy, the sax player is jazzy, the drummer is rocky and steady, the bass player is like Bill Wyman. The band does as much live work as it can."
As a humorous sideline, Noel McCalla released an album and some singles in 1993 under the name Nuf-El-Tee. With his band and MMEB work, one thing is certain: McCalla will continue to be a very busy singer.
CLIVE BUNKER (see photo below)
Even though Clive Bunker is a relatively new member of Manfred Mann's Earth Band, his career is one that every musician would envy. Many fans hold Clive in high esteem, thanks to his participation in the formation and breakthrough of Jethro Tull.
Clive describes his early start: "I started with music at school, originally having a bash on guitar and quickly being transferred behind the drum kit (or what passed as one then). The band quickly became one of the popular bands in the area. After a couple of years, I got the chance to turn professional (in The Toggery Five) and moved to Manchester. I stayed for just over a year, in which time we did the German clubs and a lot of Northern halls - quite a good grounding, really looking back on it. With my future firmly behind me, I returned to my roots fixing commercial vehicles and the usual round of rushing around doing pubs and clubs in the evenings."
During 1965 and 1966, Clive Bunker and guitarist Michael (Mick) Abrahams were in the Manchester- based The Toggery Five after the band released two Parlophone singles between 1964-1965. The full lineup of The Toggery Five was Abrahams, Bunker, Graham Waller (piano), Paul Young (vocals), Arthur Hasford (trumpet), Dave Cakebread (bass), and Bernie Hetherington (saxes). After this group broke up, Bunker and Abrahams appeared with Andy Pyle (bass) and Pete Fensome (vocals) in McGregor's Engine in 1967.
In November 1967, McGregor's Engine was playing on the same bill as The John Evan Smash. The John Evan Smash played a combination of jazz, blues and soul, and consisted of Ian Anderson (vocals/flute), drummer Barrie Barlow, John Evans (keyboards; later known as John Evan), bassist Glenn Cornick, Neil Smith (aka Chick Murray; guitar), Tony Wilkinson (baritone sax) and Neil Valentine (tenor sax). Both bands were on the verge of breaking up. Upon seeing McGregor's Engine, Ian Anderson asked Mick Abrahams and Clive Bunker if they would join his band to replace Barlow and Smith. Clive and Mick were located in Luton, so they relocated to London at the end of 1967 to get gigs. Ian Anderson then handled the booking arrangements, which first involved satisfying the remaining John Evan Smash dates in soul clubs. To be able to play more than once at the same clubs, this new band played using several names to build up their reputation. The name that was the most successful with club owners was Jethro Tull, the real name of an 18th Century agriculturist and inventor of the seed drill. Jethro Tull's personnel now included Ian Anderson (vocals, flute), Mick Abrahams (guitar), Glenn Cornick (bass) and Clive Bunker (drums).
The John Evan Smash had already recorded two sessions with producer Derek Lawrence in 1967: the first was a demo session for EMI under the name Candy Coloured Rain, and the second featured the songs "Aeroplane," "Blues For The 18th" and a couple of others. By the time "Aeroplane" was completed, the sax players were dismissed and were not included on the track. Nothing happened with these songs until Bunker and Abrahams were brought into the fold.
The second Derek Lawrence session had Jethro Tull recording the Mick Abrahams pop composition "Sunshine Day." This song, combined with the previous John Evan Smash track "Aeroplane," formed the respective A-side and B-side of their debut single released by MGM on February 16, 1968. The MGM single was bound to fail, since Derek Lawrence changed the band's name to Jethro Toe on the record label. MGM and Derek Lawrence were soon out of the picture. After this disastrous experience, bookers Chris Wright and Terry Ellis got Jethro Tull signed to Island Records and their newly formed Chrysalis production company, which soon evolved into Chrysalis Records.
Jethro Tull played pubs and small clubs through the summer of 1968, but their residency at London's Marquee Club was the ideal location for them to expand their fan base. Thanks to the Marquee's manager John Gee, Tull took off like a rocket. The band was booked at the August 1968 Sunbury Jazz and Blues Festival, and they became the festival's smash hit. Everyone took notice of the band's amazing stage presence, especially that of front man Ian Anderson.
The combination of Ian Anderson's writing and playing talents and the entire band's live excitement formed the blueprint for success with their first LP This Was. The album, a Top 10 seller in England (#62 in the US), had a lot of powerful material to offer. Bunker's showcase on the album was the drum heavy "Dharma For One." The next offering by the band was the Top 30 UK single "Love Story."
For the most part, Anderson and Abrahams did their writing apart. This situation, combined with management squabbles, put Abrahams in the middle between Anderson and management. Abrahams finally had enough of an unpleasant situation and left the band in December 1968 - just after they made plans to tour the US! Mick Abrahams formed the group Blodwyn Pig and did some solo albums during the '70s.
After making its first BBC radio session recordings with new guitarist Martin Barre, Jethro Tull arranged a 1969 US tour, opening up for Led Zeppelin and Fleetwood Mac. Again, in a short time, Jethro Tull had won over the US as they had done in England. Now they were ready for their big breakthrough.
Jethro Tull certainly made the most out of their first trip to the US. In February 1969, in the middle of their US stay, Jethro Tull recorded the song "Living In The Past" in a small New Jersey studio. Released as a single in May of that year, "Living In The Past" provided the major hit (#3) that the band was looking for in England. Capitalizing on this hit, Jethro Tull appeared on BBC TV's Top Of The Pops and achieved full acclaim across the board. Suddenly, Tull had graduated from the underground rock scene. In the US, this single was not a big seller but it helped to cultivate the band's growing American audience. When the band headed west in March 1969, it stopped in a Los Angeles studio to lay down the single's B-side, "Driving Song."
With the appearance of the Stand Up LP in 1969, Jethro Tull was finally able to present a full album's worth of material coinciding with Ian Anderson's musical visions. Jethro Tull was rewarded with a #1 British album and their first gold album in the US (a Top 20 item). Now since Jethro Tull had success on both the album and singles fronts, it was now time to build on that success. The follow-up single "Sweet Dream" provided Tull with another Top 10 UK single in late 1969, but US singles success was still in the wings.
The start of the seventies brought with it a new Tull single: "The Witch's Promise" b/w "Teacher." A #4 double-sided British hit, the single included an appearance by old friend (and current college student) John Evans (aka John Evan) on keyboards. Benefit was a May 1970 release, and furthered the band's success throughout the world. British and American sales were strong, and the band advanced to concert headlining status in the US. Before setting out for this tour, John Evans made a guest appearance on Benefit and was convinced to give up his studies to join the band full-time. Glenn Cornick left at the end of 1970 to form the group Wild Turkey, and he was replaced by Jeffrey Hammond-Hammond (a joke!).
The issuance of the Aqualung LP in March 1971 (US: May 1971) was the realization of all that the band strove for, and remains Jethro Tull's landmark LP. Presented in two parts, Aqualung presented Anderson's views on life and organized religion, and included the rock anthems "Aqualung," "Cross- Eyed Mary," "Hymn 43" and "Locomotive Breath." Aqualung hit #4 and #7 respectively on the UK and US album charts.
Clive Bunker left the band in May 1971 to get married. In 1974, Clive joined Mick Abrahams in a reformation of Blodwyn Pig, but this didn't last long. He later played on numerous sessions, with albums by Steve Hillage (Live Herald) and Steve Howe (The Steve Howe Album) being the most notable. Clive relates his situation: "In 1971, I left to practice all the bits they had shown me . . . no seriously, I actually left to get married and take some time off to get it all together, and practice, of course!" After about six months, Clive Bunker was asked by Chrysalis if he would join up with Robin Trower. This didn't work out due to musical differences. He started doing varied sessions like Generation X to Demis Roussos. Loads of singles sessions were also on Clive's schedule, but his enjoyment of touring was also satisfied by this work.
After missing that "band feeling," Bunker joined Mick Rogers (ex-MMEB) and Jack Lancaster (ex- Blodwyn Pig) to form Aviator in 1979. Aviator released two albums: Aviator (1979) and Turbulence (1980), the latter being a UK-only release. This turned out to be musically self- indulgent for him, and Clive was back to doing sessions. Again, this included another reformation of Blodwyn Pig! Clive recalls that with Aviator, "We just could not pull that band out of the bag, and its shelf life ran out."
In 1991, Manfred Mann called Clive and asked him if he wanted to join the Earth Band. Clive had never seen the band live despite knowing Mick Rogers, but he was told that MMEB was really good live. Bunker joined up, and he also plays with Mick's Abrahams' Blodwyn Pig on occasion. He also played with Jethro Tull in London for some shows during their 25th anniversary tour in 1993. After completing his Soft Vengeance album sessions with Manfred, Bunker went off on his own with the group Solstice. Clive also continues his ties with Jethro Tull activities of all sorts.
After leaving Manfred Mann in 1963, Richmond became a session player. His most notable appearances were on Manfred Mann's Instrumental Assassination EP (1966), Elton John's self-titled album (1970), Bread, Love & Dreams' Amaryllis LP (1971) and Hank Marvin's Second Opinion album (1971). After these, Richmond appeared on the 1981 Green Ice soundtrack with Bill Wyman (of The Rolling Stones) and appears from time to time on sessions.
In 1965, Bruce moved from The Graham Bond Organisation to John Mayall's Bluesbreakers to Manfred Mann, while releasing a solo single that year ("I'm Gettin' Tired [Of Drinkin' And Gamblin']"). He left in 1966 to form Cream with Eric Clapton and Ginger Baker. After this band ran out its 2-year term, Bruce appeared with his bass in numerous solo and group settings. Most recently, Jack has done a few tours with Ringo Starr's All-Starr Band and he enjoyed it immensely. With all of his accomplishments, Jack Bruce's musical contributions cannot be understated.
Colin learned how to play bass from instructional guides, especially from American session player Carol Kaye. Pattenden started playing his bass with a group called Les Tekneeks (later known as Tekneek). This group was formed with his cousin Graham White. Pattenden and White did sessions and backed up numerous pop luminaries: Leapy Lee, Solomon King and Gerry Dorsey. The latter became famous afterward when he changed his name to Engelbert Humperdinck! When Tekneek broke up, Colin labored as a lathe turner and prototype wireman in an electronics company for six months until Chris Slade invited him to try out for MMEB.
After leaving the Earth Band in 1977, he and Chris Slade formed Terra Nova with Chris Slade in 1978. This band dissolved after recording an album. Pattenden became a successful businessman, but his musical interests were still active. He joined a reformed Beggar's Opera and released the German-only LP Life Line. Colin currently plays with a touring version of The Nashville Teens.
Scotsman Dave Flett was certainly an amazingly talented guitarist, but his sudden disappearance after MMEB's breakup even baffled the band. Flett made a shy stage debut at 15, but his abilities finally broke out in 1972 with the group Once Upon A Band. A fellow Aberdeen native, Dave Stroud, found out about the MMEB guitarist vacancy, and relieved Flett of his laundry van driving duties! After the breakup of the Earth Band in 1978, Flett joined Thin Lizzy on a tour of Japan in 1979. Flett then formed a short-lived band with Matt Irving called Zaine Grigg, and they issued a self-titled album soon afterwards. Following this, Flett played with Gerry McAvoy, and then he was nowhere to be found. After some time in Florida, Dave Flett moved to Canada and has been doing some production in the Toronto area.
King, also born in Scotland, was a skiffle fan, and his first band was The Rockefellers in 1959. In Aberdeen, Pat enrolled at Gray's School of Art. At this time, King played with The Midnighters (also known as Midnighters Incorporated), The Strollers, El Cyd And The Commancheros and The Royal Teens. Joining future Rockpile guitarist Billy Bremner in the popular Aberdeen band, Tommy Dene And The Tremors, Pat had his first recording experience although their demos never got beyond the acetate stage. The Tremors hit the German beat club spots in Cologne and Frankfurt, and returned to very low-billed UK live dates with The Roulettes, Frank Ifield, The Small Faces and The Paramounts (the forerunner of Procol Harum). After leaving art school, Pat moved to London and joined The Luvvers (Lulu's backup band) as a guitar player. Recording sessions with Paul Raven (Gary Glitter's first stage name) followed, as well as appearances on Eurovision song contests and records. Pat King soon joined The George Bean Group, which recorded the soundtrack to Paul Jones' film Privilege. (Yes folks, that's true!) King did more sessions with Champagne, The Dooleys and Billy Ocean, and played at Cat Stevens' last live show at Weston-Super-Mare, UK. The brass-oriented Trifle was Pat's next band, and they recorded the album First Meeting in 1971. After a stint as a Playboy Club croupier, King moved on to the new Cliff Bennett band, Shanghai, which went on a British and European tour with Status Quo. Shanghai recorded the Fallen Heroes album (released 1976) and some singles, but none of these made the band any money. King quit Shanghai in 1976 and joined MMEB the next year after a Workhouse Studio employee, who was overseeing a Roy Harper TV appearance, inquired about a MMEB bass player to replace Colin Pattenden. Pat now works for Manfred Mann concert promoter Alec Leslie.
Lingwood sat behind the MMEB drum kit when Geoff Britton became ill in 1979. Another seasoned session man, Lingwood had played with Leo Sayer, Arthur Brown, Catherine Howe, Maddy Prior, Steamhammer and Stomu Yamashta's East Wind. He also played in the bands of the London stage productions of Jesus Christ Superstar and Hair during the mid-1970s. He co-wrote the theme to the Gangsters TV series with Greenslade in 1978. In between his Earth Band duties, Lingwood also appeared in Dave Greenslade's TV rock opera Curricle, Curricla in 1981. The next year, Lingwood recorded albums and tours with Roger Chapman and Elkie Brooks. Brooks' 1982 album Pearls II was a platinum seller, as was the video Pearls - The Video Show. He has also played on two Roger Waters LPs with Matt Irving: When The Wind Blows and Radio Kaos. Most recently, Lingwood worked on Chris Thompson's 1991 German tour, and has continued his projects with Thompson.
Another Scottish bassist, Irving has been in many groups as well: The Dream Police, a 1967 band featuring Hamish Stewart (who later formed Average White Band), The Crocodiles, Longdancer and The Babys. After forming Special Branch with Dave Flett, Irving played on sessions with Zaine Griff, Anthony Moore, The Lords Of The New Church, Roger Waters and Paul Young. Matt joined the Earth Band in 1981. Matt, who also plays keyboards and accordion, played the former with Squeeze, and he most recently has played with Chris Rea.
STEVE KINCH (see photo below)
The current MMEB bass player started playing guitar at the age of twelve, when his parents bought it for a Christmas present. Two years later, he was playing for the "Girl Guides." At sixteen, Steve left school to become a glassblower, and after four or five years, he started to play bass in some bands. Playing with Hazel O'Connor in 1980 gave Steve his first successful experience on tour in England, Europe and in the States. This group lasted for about two years.
In 1984, Kinch joined Jim Capaldi's band. He spent three months rehearsing for a US tour, but the tour was canceled at the last minute. Steve joined MMEB in 1985, and the story on how he passed the audition is humorous: "After about a year of trying to start up my own projects, a friend called me up to tell me that MMEB was looking for a bass player. Fortunately, my friend was also helping out with the auditions. After I took care of my friend (!), I found out what songs they were auditioning with, giving me an advantage over most of the other hopefuls and impressing the band by my ability to play on "previously unheard songs!" After succeeding at the audition, Kinch played in the 1986 touring band and appeared on the album Criminal Tango.
Between 1987 and 1991 he toured the world with The Rubettes, but in 1991 he got Manfred's call to rejoin MMEB for some tours and to work on a new album, which turned out to be Soft Vengeance.
The new drummer of the Earth Band, John joined in early 1996. He's only 29, but he's been following the band since "Blinded By The Light" (sounds like someone else we know, Greg!). John has done studio and live work with Colin Blunstone, Jimmy Barnes, Chris Thompson, Andy Fairweather-Low, Bad Company's Robert Hart, Don Airey, Whitesnake, Richard Niles, Philip Pope and numerous others. He has also appeared on many British TV programs, like Noel's House Party
,Not The 9 O'Clock News
, Spitting Image
, Clive Anderson,Whose Line Is It Anyway?
and French And Saunders
. In April 2000, Trotter was replaced on drums by Richard Marcangelo.
RICHARD MARCANGELO (no photo yet!)
Starting in April 2000, Richard impressed MMEB audiences immediately with his forceful playing. Marcangelo has done many sessions, including one for Sniff 'N' The Tears. When more information becomes available on Richard, you'll see it here!
|MANFRED MANN'S EARTH BAND - 1991-1995|
(left to right: Clive Bunker [the bald one!], Steve Kinch, Noel McCalla, Manfred Mann, Mick Rogers)